Non-Research Citations in the Siemens Research Study

Defending himself against my criticism of his recently released research study on distance and online learning, George Siemens tweets:

Au contraire mon frère. There are many non-research articles cites, with a particular preference toward foundations, consultants, a few blogs and news and magazine articles. The non-research citations are as selective and ill-informed as the formal citations.

Personally, I have no objection to citing from supposedly non-research sites; I do it all the time.But I don't do it while claiming to not be doing it.

Here they are, collected from the references at the end of the various articles:

Allen, C. (2004). Life with alacrity: Tracing the evolution of social software. Retrieved from

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2011). Going the distance: Online education in the United
States, 2011 (Survey Report). Babson Survey Research Group. Retrieved from

Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2013). Changing course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education
in the United States. Sloan Consortium. PO Box 1238, Newburyport, MA 09150.

Allen, I. E., Seaman, J., & Garrett, R. (2007). Blending in: The extent and promise of
blended education in the United States. Sloan Consortium. Retrieved from

Azevedo, R. (1993). A meta-analysis on the effects of computer-presented feedback on learning
from computer-based instruction. The Department of Education, Concordia University

Beinkowski, M., Feng, M., & Means, B. (2012). Enhancing Teaching and Learning
Through Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: An Issue Brief (No.
ED-04-CO-0040) (pp. 1–57). US Department of Education, Office of Educational
Technology. Retrieved from

Belanger, Y., & Thornton, J. (2013). Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach.
Duke University. Retrieved from

Bordón, P., & Braga, B. (2013). Employer Learning, Statistical Discrimination and
University Prestige. Retrieved from

Clardy, A. (2009). Distant, On-line Education: Effects, Principles and Practices. Online
Submission, Retreived from ERIC Database. Retrieved from http://files.eric.

Coughlan, S. (2014, April 8). The irresistible urge for students to talk. Retrieved April 18,
2014, from

Dua, A. (2013). Voice of the Graduate. McKinsey & Company. Retrieved from http://

Eaton, J. S. (2001). Distance learning: Academic and political challenges for higher
education accreditation. Council for Higher Education Accreditation
Washington, DC.

Friedman, T. L. (2012, May 15). Come the revolution. The New York Times. Retrieved

GSV Advisors. (2012). Fall of the wall: Capital flows to education innovation. Chicago, IL:
Global Silicon Valley (GSV) Advisors. Retrieved from

Jaggars, S., & Bailey, T. R. (2010). Effectiveness of fully online courses for college students:
Response to a Department of Education meta-analysis. Retrieved from http://

Jordan, K. (2013). MOOC Completion Rates: The Data. Retrieved from http://www.

Laitinen, A. (2012). Cracking the Credit Hour. New America Foundation. Retrieved from

Learned, W. S., & Wood, B. D. (1938). The student and his knowledge: A report to the
Carnegie Foundation on the results of the high school and college examinations
of 1928, 1930, and 1932. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of

McAuley, A., Stewart, B., Siemens, G., & Cormier, D. (2010). The MOOC model for
digital practice. Retrieved from

McGuire, R. (2014). Hacking the hacker school: How the bootcamp is being taken to
scale outside the coding world. Retrieved December 20, 2014, from http://

Naughton, J. (2012, December 29). LinkedIn endorsements turn you into the
product. Retrieved January 16, 2015, from

OECD Publishing. (2013). Education at a Glance 2013: OECD Indicators. Retrieved from

Pappano, L. (2012, November 2). The Year of the MOOC. The New York Times.
Retrieved from

Paul, D. S. (2001). A meta-analytic review of factors that influence the effectiveness of
Web-based training within the context of distance learning. Texas A&M University.

Rainie, L. (2010). Internet, broadband, and cell phone statistics. Pew Internet & American
Life Project, 5. Retrieved from

Selwyn, N., & Bulfin, S. (2014). The discursive construction of MOOCs as educational
opportunity and educational threat. MOOC Research Initiative (MRI) - Final
Report. Retrieved from

Shapiro, J. (2014, February 17). Competency-based degrees: Coming soon to a campus
near you. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://chronicle.
com/article/Competency-Based-Degrees-/144769/ Shedd, J. M. (2003). The
History of the Student Credit Hour. New Directions for Higher Education,
2003(122), 5–12. doi:10.1002/he.106

Siemens, G. (2012). MOOCs are really a platform. ELearnSpace Blog. Retrieved from

Siemens, G. (2014a, July 5). elearnspace › Activating Latent Knowledge Capacity.
Retrieved from

Siemens, G. (2014b, November 18). elearnspace › Digital Learning Research Network
(dLRN ). Retrieved from

Thomson, P., Saunders, J., & Foyster, J. (2001). Improving the validity of competencybased
assessment. National Centre for Vocational Education Research.
Retrieved from

Tucker, B. (2012). The Flipped Classroom. Education Next, 12(1), 82–83. Retrieved from

Wasserman, T. (2013, January 3). LinkedIn’s Endorsements Have Become Meaningless.
Retrieved December 20, 2014, from

Young, J. R. (2012, January 8). “Badges” earned online pose challenge to traditional
college diplomas. Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from https://

Zhao, Y., & Breslow, L. (2013). Literature review on hybrid/blended learning. Retrieved

(Not inmcluding half a dozen Proquest results, no journal cited, can't access database)

(Also not including a large number of references from medical journals which had no apparent educational-based oversight)


  1. Willem vanValkenburg: RT @Downes: Non-Research Citations in the Siemens Research Study [Stephen Downes at Limited News]

  2. frankbenneker: RT @Downes: Non-Research Citations in the Siemens Research Study [Stephen Downes at Limited News]

  3. Shelly Sanchez: RT @Downes: Non-Research Citations in the Siemens Research Study [Stephen Downes at Limited News]


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