Again these talks are all in French so my note-taking may be inaccurate in places.
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
Environnements personnels d'apprentissage ou d'enseigments
xMOOCs - the good
- democratozation of access to learning
- rethinking the way knowledge is transmitted - flip the classroom
- rethinking the role of the universities - flip the institution
- facilitation of continuing education - interestingly, many of our students already have degrees
- feedback on progress
- the bad
- english-speaking hegeonomy
- scholarly style - vs a more open European style
- reduction of diversity
- need for a production team
- the challenging
- competition between institutions and centres
- lack of control of IP
- lack of control over personal data
- fraud or identity theft
- private intermediaries for evaluation
- cMOOCs - connectivism in action
- it's important to use open standard
- MOOLs - massive open online labs
- are institutions centers of learning or of teaching?
- does MOOCification result in reduced quality? Can they improve quality without reducing proximity?
- can the collection of personal data be negotiated?
Personal Learning environments (Environnements personnels d'apprentissage) (APE)
- channels of communication
- cloud resources - OERs
- peer learning in social networks
Example: Chinese site - EPA dans Liferay
(similar to an iGoogle or Pageflakes site)
Social platform for personal learning environments:
- enables agile creation of shared spaces for learning activities
Allows you to specify audience, roles, entities
PLEs in an institutional context
- added value:
- supports spontaneous activities without LMS
- organize activities with external colleagues without access problems
- flexible organization of student activities
Responsible Open Learning Envrinments - ROLE
- principally for students with sufficient digital skills
- Reseau European d;Excellence STELLAR en Nouvelles Technologies Edicatifs
- developed to teach the same menthods of collaboration found among reserachers
xEPA - Environments to support cMOOCs
- designed to support connective activities
- continuum betqween xMOOCs and cMOOCs, across domains:
- aggregation & dissemination - generated a priori or found by participants
- tutoring and evalaluation - normative or formative
- sequence and structure - imposed by platform vs created by participants
- Extensibility of Environments
- project: tranforming platform for APE to support for a cMOOC
- a lot of talk of OERs - less about the extensibility of platform services
- these are typically scripts
- eg. peer evaluation, questionairre creation, group formation, competence exchanges, etc.
- Result: Open Social Web Apps
- principle innovation of xMOOCs - studented content in 15-minute chunks
- cMOOCs and xMOOCs in social media
- two student spresenting to each other
- group projects
- peer evaluation
Go-Lab - Global Online Science Labs for Inquiry Learning at School
- mass access to:
- scientific data
- virtual experiences & simulations
- actual scientific labs and instruments
- as a means of access applications
- eg. analysis, interactivem visual
- practical leanring in science and engineering
- support for professional competencies
- support for the scientific creation and validation of learning
- environment: circle linking
- online labs
- communications apps - eg. opensocial
- Go-Lab - private space for students to sstudy
- edX - integrated space
- Example: ILS MOOL
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
- The president went on a trip to California and came back talking about MOOC revolutions. We did a seminar with all the teachers and talked about it - talking in very general terms about the digital revolution, about MOOCs, etc. Open access, crowd sourcing.
- MNOOCs in context - the idea of crowdsourcing (the example of the public solving a protein structure problem). Michael Nielsen, 'Reinventing Discovery'. Also the example of Wikipedia. The Human Brain Project.
- Grouping of professors - you will always run into these personalities when launching a MOOC initiatuive
- Le gourou de MOOCs (mooc guru)
- Le Veteran
- Le Pessimiste - the sceptic
- MOOCs - the latest in a long line of educational innovations - eg. CMC, LMS, e-learning, etc
- EPFL - centre for distance eductaion - huge increase in enrollments in 12 online courses
- What have we done (one year later)?
- productionm disseminatiion, collaboration, coordination
- for us, it's not just a couple of professors mounting video
- it requires rethinking pedagigy, collaboration, etc
- platforms - Coursera, edX - no reason to pick one of the other
- but also, we don;t want to depend on one or the other
- So - why make MOOCs?
- visibility - to augment the reputation of l'EPFL - future profs and students can see our work
- internally, to support learning
- tecahing in french-language countries (esp. developing countries)
- outline of the MOOCs created - different models, English and French
- geographic distribution - global
- it's difficult to reach Africa - but with partnerships it is possible
- the challenge: access to internet (it's what makes the difference)
- dropout rate - common across all courses
- a good MOOC has 10% of finishers
- the best MOOC in this regard is the Scalia one
- sampling successful students:
- they like flexibility
- they like watching the videos together
- students demand data privacy
- they want contact with the professors
- we should have taken before-after pictures of the professors
- takes a lot of work
- it's risky, physically (because of the work) & in visibility
- but they are happy to open the door to their teaching - ed has never been so exposed
- student participation
- on the surface - videos and quizzes
- deep learning - in the assignments
- Center for Digital Education MOOCs Factory
- to guarantee a minimum quality
- MOOC studio - design, record, review, etc
- editorial process: committee, design, production, etc
- MOOCs are more social than you believe
(picture of a group watching a video together)
- MOOCs - the new textbook?
- plagiarism is massive
- flipped classrooms are difficult to set up; students want lectures
- difficult to manages internal and external students
- teacher workload
- mosts - MOOCs don't make money
Lab. LIRIS, Universite Lyon
Research questions and methods on the MOOC: what's new?
- what is a MOOC? May seem easy to identiofy the objevct of study...
- xMOOC - top down
- cMOOC - bottom up? constructivist?
- iMOOC? - i for investigation - neither top down nor bottom up
- the web context - a man-machine complex environment
- the fact that a new way of learning emerges form this enviornment is not surprising
- the web is widely available - no place where it'snot present
- we turn to the web to find information
- many e-learning conferences (like to Wright list)
- Personalizing - adapting the learning process
- change in focus from content to student (information vs process)
- personalizing larning, learning analytics
- gaming - gathering contributions of thousands of learners
- today's games are simple - tomorrow will include mobile, etc
- assessment digital badges - peer-to-peer assessment
- learning analytics - beyond logs, look at interactions
- analytrics cab be a form of assistant, presented to the student
- but againn data privacy concerns
- learning activities
- self-directed, atc
- learner as co-designer
- eg, like a mash-up
The COAT project (Connaissances Ouvertes a Tous)
= Open Kowledge for All
- animating the french reserach neto=work
- MOOC pilot in Lyon - design-oriented researccg
- can we use this in a rtional way?
- developing genericm applications for website.
- model - design run the MOOC, evaluate for knwoledge
- eg. Dokuwiki
Eric Bruillard / STEF
The Force of Number
- in this talk, a different stance on MOOCs
- in 85/86 we tried to convince everyone how important hypertext was, now everybody is convinced
- MOOCs are similarly a rapic innovation
- democratization of knowledge
- sharing of learning
- but it is also an avatar of past failures - the myth of the 'best course ever'
- innovation is firstly institutional
- but learning is artisinal
- the x/c dichotomy must be overcome
- DL + social learning + temporal framework
- the force of numbers
- submitting to catholic law and english rule
- gaza - a parallel
- opportunities in large numbers, eg. analytics
- richness of social networks
but: processing is more marketing than cognitive so far (A/B testing)
- and the tension between the individual and the collective
plus: the ideology of reducing everything to numbers
- education as technology
- does big data explain or does it merely predict?
- do moocs legitimize this sort of management?
Example: SITE 2014 - Paul Kim
- massive global classroom
- learning analytics and 'team projects'
- but: it's a 'Darwinian standpoint'
- if people are autonomous it will work
- is Wikipedia like the MOOC? - decfrie, but everybody uses it
- it is a collective activity - how do we understand this?
- what does it produce? (what is its product?)
- but not after a 'process of professionalization' there are in reasing recruitment difficulties
- how do we assess the quality of articles? We don't understand collective writing yet
- free registration for all,
- but that doesn't matter if the rhythm is imposed
- 'idiorythmie' - each according to our own rhythms
- but MOOCs impose a rhythm
- paradoxes of autonomy
- doing what you want, when you want, vs
- without autonomy, there must be support
- the simplest would be to have a collaborative class
- but whaat is the role of the tutor?
So, what do we learn?
- autonomy and force of numbers - little rapport?
- yet we have Google & Wikipedia
- privileged links between the biggest actors on the web
- potentially, we have access to everything, but in practice, we have access to Google results
- how then do we give *(and support) individual autonomy?
- inclusion in a learning system inside a social system (R. Hotte)
Why MOOCs? Who uses them?
- not a simple answer
- mostly lifelong learning - but also fun? to find a job?
- survey - MOOCs are largely reaching the privileged
- the rich get richer - MOOCs ppush this process along
- it pushes right at the point of conflict between pubic and private institions
(and the border between them vanishes)
- teens use technology for fun in very different ways than what learning requires
- universities are now facing a new (and very different) audience
- why? what would keep participants engaged?
- three profiles (at least) of leavers:
- free auditors
- those who little by little abandon it
- those who come and go
- what is at stake is to find a tool to understand the reason for these failures
Example - English composition MOOC
- is it a blog?
- drawing of course - everybody doing everything
(drawn by a student relating his experience)
I. Quentin, M, Khaneboubi (factors influencing the dropout rate / success of a MOOC)
- importance of the brand (eg. Stanford)
- impact of 'reception conditions'
- effect of proximity, video, discourse
- control of video by the user
- comportment - how people take the course
- alone or with a group
- checking the quizzes before video
- the 'personalities'
- collective phenomena, belonging to a group
- availability of learning technology (ie., the absence of technology problems)
- eg. automatic correction
Example: MOOC on the MOOCs
- Matthieu Cisel
Example: teaching and learning using digital technology
- ENS Cachen and ENS Lyon, partners
- focused on digital pedagogies
- experiment in french versions of MOOCs
- understand how to have a national look with local learning (ie., articulation)
5 Design principles
- collective design and distributed delivery (eg., many authors)
- allow enrollment in groups (binome et trinome) to support co-learning
- this is a question of time and flexibility
- offer the MOOC as supplemental resources for higher education
- adapted to local contexts
- participate in existing social networks
- eg. les IREM Sesamath or e-Greta
- they produce textbooks & have a collaborative working platform
- associate the MOOC with research
- it's easy to find unhappy people, more difficult to find satisfied ones
Projects / Tools
- ReVEA - living reosurces, communities that support them
- RPE - social learning network
- CALICO - sharing of discussion, analytical tools
- Castor - information concours with 180,000 participants; we have gathered this data
- sharing of reserach data (eventually scientific publication will be possible only if data is shared)
- pedagogy has to be reinvented, compatible with social patterns
- there's a new science of learning - construction, diffusion, sharing
- conditions of learning in the other culture
MOOC = EAD + RS + participation conjointe
Mark Bernstein - 3 metaphors
- working in a mine
- working in agriculture
- working in manufacturing (industrial organization)
-> where do MOOCs fit? Where does information work fit?
MOOCs: Between fossilization of practice and development of digital pedagogy
- wil talk about learning, collaboration and distance
- I'm not an educator, I'm coming from nuclear physics
- But I often say, students are not elementary particles
- when my parents asked me what I learned at school, I said 'nothing'
- you always learn alone but never without the others
- in the talks today you heard about MOOCs that could carry knowledge to the entire planet
- but is there a risk of global cognitive autism?
- it is true for every human tool
- Plato Phaedrus - 'writing is a tool for reminiscence, not memory'
- paradox of writing - it never happens that one technology replaces the other
- they complete each other
- before thinking of digital pedagogy, you have to think of pedagogy itself
- because learning fundamentals have not really changed
- John Biggs: it is coherence between objectives that matter
- what are the goals of these learnings (x,c)?
- toward a principle of cohherence
- evaluation: tools, objectives, methods
- constrictivist alignment (Biggs 1999, Lebrun 2007)
- objectoves - you said competences?
- when I began, it was simple - students had to integrate the knowledge
- but in 2000s - voila les learning outcomes
- not only did students have to perform in a context, they had to prove their competence (eg. with badges, portfolios)
- knowledge is more and more externalized
- lectures are available on the intternett
- "we don't have an empty mind, we have a free mind" - from Serres
- now we have the MOOC & we are going toward MOOC industrialization - actors read the lecture
- Serre - our brain is made to develoo competence, to criticize knowledge
- Stigler, reply - sociual networks are not toxic - iot shows we can use new technology
- points to 'digital competences' - collaboration, criticial thinking, etc
- everybody agrees about these XXIst century competencies (he says)
- a continuum of competence development is needed
Learning by doing
- competences are built by doing - but is knowledge build by doing?
- speaking about project management, you can find plenty of textbooks
- do you not think knowledge is built upon knowledge?
- "training may be regarded as preparation for future learning opportunities. It is an interactive process and an intentional activity," (Broown & Atkins, 1988)
- "I never teach my students - I merely provide the conditions where they can learn."
- "I insist. What is there to transmit? Knowledge? It is everywhere on the web..."
- e-learning - forms
- mediation of resources
- mediation of conversation
- and universities in their current form will disappear (say the press reports)
- demand the student exprrience of students
- CCK12 - top down vs bottom up
- socio-constructivist pedagogy
- no they work in a network equally - more horizontal structures
- vs. UBerkeley on YouTube - traditional pedagogy - teach, train
vs. blogs, Google+, Twitter, etc
+ personal Learning Environments
- they created their own connectivism MOOC around these courses
- so what are they going to do with their campus?
- we will have to bring out a new model for these institutions
- it's MOOC and MOOC (comparing moocs to travel guides)
- co-learning (trip-advisor; you add comments to evaluate)
- teacher, traditional pedagogy (Michelin guide; you grade with stars)
- I'm thinking of a combined approach (without falling into fossilization))
- we still need the lecture
- we still need text
- remember Luther taking a book and saying we will be able to access knowledge
- it's typical human activity - with new tech, we first try to reproduce the old
(examnple of digital photos)
- as well, a new consideration of concepts such as presence/distance, teaching/learning, space/time
- if you are doing transmissive teaching you can do it at a distance
- but learning requires presence
- so now space-time interferes with learning
- comparing flipped classrooms with Coursera
- eLearn2 - an x-c-MOOC
- online learning, tutorials based on individual projects - 30 participants
- this embedded in a larger class online with 860 participants
- another 490 person google group overlapping
- this way you always have someone answering the questions
- it's a critical mass phenomena
- the fossilization...
- you can't use new technologies with old methods
- you can't use a vacuum cleaner to beat a rug
- TIC and pedagogy
- what is the impact of technology on technology?
- LMS, MOOC, etc. 8could* comntribute to pedagogical development (this is the promise)
- but meanwhile, the positive impact of technology *requires* a learning disposition by students
(this is the condition)